日期:2020-06-06  浏览次数:393 次

Chapter 7 - Collections

Enumeration

Low-level use of IEnumerable and IEnumerator

string s = "Hello";

// Because string implements IEnumerable, we can call GetEnumerator():
IEnumerator rator = s.GetEnumerator();

while (rator.MoveNext())
{
  char c = (char) rator.Current;
  Console.Write (c + ".");
}

Console.WriteLine();

// Equivalent to:

foreach (char c in s)
  Console.Write (c + ".");

Disposing enumerators

IEnumerable<char> s = "Hello";

using (var rator = s.GetEnumerator())
  while (rator.MoveNext())
  {
    char c = (char) rator.Current;
    Console.Write (c + ".");
  }

Use of nongeneric interfaces

void Main()
{
  Count ("the quick brown fix".Split()).Dump();
}

public static int Count (IEnumerable e)
{
  int count = 0;
  foreach (object element in e)
  {
    var subCollection = element as IEnumerable;
    if (subCollection != null)
      count += Count (subCollection);
    else
      count++;
  }
  return count;
}

Simple iterator class

void Main()
{
  foreach (int element in new MyCollection())
    Console.WriteLine (element);
}

public class MyCollection : IEnumerable
{
  int[] data = { 1, 2, 3 };
  
  public IEnumerator GetEnumerator()
  {
    foreach (int i in data)
      yield return i;
  }
}

Simple iterator class - generic

void Main()
{
  foreach (int element in new MyGenCollection())
    Console.WriteLine (element);
}

public class MyGenCollection : IEnumerable<int>
{
  int[] data = { 1, 2, 3 };

  public IEnumerator<int> GetEnumerator()
  {
    foreach (int i in data)
      yield return i;
  }

  IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator()     // Explicit implementation
  {                                           // keeps it hidden.
    return GetEnumerator();
  }
}

Iterator method

void Main()
{
  foreach (int i in Test.GetSomeIntegers())
    Console.WriteLine (i);
}

public class Test
{
  public static IEnumerable <int> GetSomeIntegers()
  {
    yield return 1;
    yield return 2;
    yield return 3;
  }
}

Low-level approach - nongeneric

void Main()
{
  foreach (int i in new MyIntList())
    Console.WriteLine (i);
}

public class MyIntList : IEnumerable
{
  int[] data = { 1, 2, 3 };

  public IEnumerator GetEnumerator() => new Enumerator (this);

  class Enumerator : IEnumerator       // Define an inner class
  {                                    // for the enumerator.
    MyIntList collection;
    int currentIndex = -1;

    internal Enumerator (MyIntList collection)
    {
      this.collection = collection;
    }

    public object Current
    {
      get
      {
        if (currentIndex == -1)
          throw new InvalidOperationException ("Enumeration not started!");
        if (currentIndex == collection.data.Length)
          throw new InvalidOperationException ("Past end of list!");
        return collection.data [currentIndex];
      }
    }

    public bool MoveNext()
    {
      if (currentIndex >= collection.data.Length - 1) return false;
      return ++currentIndex < collection.data.Length;
    }
    
    public void Reset() => currentIndex = -1;
  }
}

Low-level approach - generic

void Main()
{
  foreach (int i in new MyIntList())
    Console.WriteLine (i);
}

class MyIntList : IEnumerable<int>
{
  int[] data = { 1, 2, 3 };

  // The generic enumerator is compatible with both IEnumerable and
  // IEnumerable<T>. We implement the nongeneric GetEnumerator method
  // explicitly to avoid a naming conflict.

  public IEnumerator<int> GetEnumerator() => new Enumerator(this);
  IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator() => new Enumerator(this);

  class Enumerator : IEnumerator<int>
  {
    int currentIndex = -1;
    MyIntList collection;

    internal Enumerator (MyIntList collection)
    {
      this.collection = collection;
    }

    public int Current { get { return collection.data [currentIndex]; } }
    object IEnumerator.Current { get { return Current; } }

    public bool MoveNext() => ++currentIndex < collection.data.Length;

    public void Reset() => currentIndex = -1;

    // Given we don't need a Dispose method, it's good practice to
    // implement it explicitly, so it's hidden from the public interface.

    void IDisposable.Dispose() {}
  }
}
ICollection and IList

ICollection and IList

// (see book)
Arrays

Referential vs structural comparisons

object[] a1 = { "string", 123, true };
object[] a2 = { "string", 123, true };

Console.WriteLine (a1 == a2);                          // False
Console.WriteLine (a1.Equals (a2));                    // False

IStructuralEquatable se1 = a1;

Console.WriteLine (se1.Equals (a2, StructuralComparisons.StructuralEqualityComparer));   // True

Shallow array clone

StringBuilder[] builders = new StringBuilder [5];
builders [0] = new StringBuilder ("builder1");
builders [1] = new StringBuilder ("builder2");
builders [2] = new StringBuilder ("builder3");

StringBuilder[] builders2 = builders;
StringBuilder[] shallowClone = (StringBuilder[]) builders.Clone();

builders.Dump();
builders2.Dump();

(builders[0] == builders2[0]).Dump ("Comparing first element of each array");

Construction and indexing

// Via C#'s native syntax:

int[] myArray = { 1, 2, 3 };
int first = myArray [0];
int last = myArray [myArray.Length - 1];

// Using GetValue/SetValue:

// Create a string array 2 elements in length:
Array a = Array.CreateInstance (typeof(string), 2);
a.SetValue ("hi", 0);                             //  → a[0] = "hi";
a.SetValue ("there", 1);                          //  → a[1] = "there";
a.Dump();
string s = (string) a.GetValue (0);               //  → s = a[0];
s.Dump();

// We can also cast to a C# array as follows:
string[] cSharpArray = (string[]) a;
string s2 = cSharpArray [0];
s2.Dump();

Print first element of array

// This works for arrays of any rank
void WriteFirstValue (Array a)
{
  Console.Write (a.Rank + "-dimensional; ");
  
  // The indexers array will automatically initialize to all zeros, so
  // passing it into GetValue or SetValue will get/set the zero-based
  // (i.e., first) element in the array.
  
  int[] indexers = new int[a.Rank];
  Console.WriteLine ("First value is " +  a.GetValue (indexers));
}
  
void Main()
{
  int[]  oneD = { 1, 2, 3 };
  int[,] twoD = { {5,6}, {8,9} };
  
  WriteFirstValue (oneD);   // 1-dimensional; first value is 1
  WriteFirstValue (twoD);   // 2-dimensional; first value is 5
}

Enumeration

int[] myArray = { 1, 2, 3};
foreach (int val in myArray)
  Console.WriteLine (val);

// Alternative:
Array.ForEach (new[] { 1, 2, 3 }, Console.WriteLine);

Searching arrays

string[] names = { "Rodney", "Jack", "Jill", "Jane" };

Array.Find    (names, n => n.Contains ("a")).Dump();  // Returns first matching element
Array.FindAll (names, n => n.Contains ("a")).Dump();  // Returns all matching elements

// Equivalent in LINQ:

names.FirstOrDefault (n => n.Contains ("a")).Dump();
names.Where          (n => n.Contains ("a")).Dump();

Sorting arrays

int[] numbers = { 3, 2, 1 };
Array.Sort (numbers);
numbers.Dump ("Simple sort");

numbers = new[]  { 3, 2, 1 };
string[] words = { "three", "two", "one" };
Array.Sort (numbers, words);
new { numbers, words }.Dump ("Parallel sort");

Sorting arrays with lambda

// Sort such that odd numbers come first:
int[] numbers = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
Array.Sort (numbers, (x, y) => x % 2 == y % 2 ? 0 : x % 2 == 1 ? -1 : 1);
numbers.Dump();

Converting arrays

float[] reals = { 1.3f, 1.5f, 1.8f };
int[] wholes = Array.ConvertAll (reals, r => Convert.ToInt32 (r));

wholes.Dump();
Lists, Queues, Stacks and Sets

Generic List class

List<string> words = new List<string>();    // New string-typed list

words.Add ("melon");
words.Add ("avocado");
words.AddRange (new[] { "banana", "plum" } );
words.Insert (0, "lemon");                           // Insert at start
words.InsertRange (0, new[] { "peach", "nashi" });   // Insert at start

words.Remove ("melon");
words.RemoveAt (3);                         // Remove the 4th element
words.RemoveRange (0, 2);                   // Remove first 2 elements

// Remove all strings starting in 'n':
words.RemoveAll (s => s.StartsWith ("n"));

Console.WriteLine (words [0]);                          // first word
Console.WriteLine (words [words.Count - 1]);            // last word
foreach (string s in words) Console.WriteLine (s);      // all words
List<string> subset = words.GetRange (1, 2);            // 2nd->3rd words

string[] wordsArray = words.ToArray();    // Creates a new typed array

// Copy first two elements to the end of an existing array:
string[] existing = new string [1000];
words.CopyTo (0, existing, 998, 2);

List<string> upperCaseWords = words.ConvertAll (s => s.ToUpper());
List<int> lengths = words.ConvertAll (s => s.Length);

Old ArrayList class

ArrayList al = new ArrayList();
al.Add ("hello");
string first = (string) al [0];
string[] strArr = (string[]) al.ToArray (typeof (string));

al = new ArrayList();
al.Add ("hello");
first = (string) al [0];

// We need a clumsy cast to retrieve elements:
strArr = (string[]) al.ToArray (typeof (string));  

// which fails at *runtime* if we get it wrong:
var runtimeFail = (int) al [0];    // Runtime exception

LinkedList

var tune = new LinkedList<string>();
tune.AddFirst ("do");                           tune.Dump(); // do
tune.AddLast ("so");                            tune.Dump(); // do - so

tune.AddAfter (tune.First, "re");               tune.Dump(); // do - re- so
tune.AddAfter (tune.First.Next, "mi");          tune.Dump(); // do - re - mi- so
tune.AddBefore (tune.Last, "fa");               tune.Dump(); // do - re - mi - fa- so

tune.RemoveFirst();                             tune.Dump(); // re - mi - fa - so
tune.RemoveLast();                              tune.Dump(); // re - mi - fa

LinkedListNode<string> miNode = tune.Find ("mi");
tune.Remove (miNode);                           tune.Dump(); // re - fa
tune.AddFirst (miNode);                         tune.Dump(); // mi- re - fa

Queue

var q = new Queue<int>();
q.Enqueue (10);
q.Enqueue (20);
int[] data = q.ToArray();         // Exports to an array
Console.WriteLine (q.Count);      // "2"
Console.WriteLine (q.Peek());     // "10"
Console.WriteLine (q.Dequeue());  // "10"
Console.WriteLine (q.Dequeue());  // "20"
Console.WriteLine (q.Dequeue());  // throws an exception (queue empty)

Stack

var q = new Queue<int>();
q.Enqueue (10);
q.Enqueue (20);
int[] data = q.ToArray();         // Exports to an array
Console.WriteLine (q.Count);      // "2"
Console.WriteLine (q.Peek());     // "10"
Console.WriteLine (q.Dequeue());  // "10"
Console.WriteLine (q.Dequeue());  // "20"
Console.WriteLine (q.Dequeue());  // throws an exception (queue empty)

BitArray

var bits = new BitArray(2);
bits[1] = true;
bits.Xor (bits);               // Bitwise exclusive-OR bits with itself
Console.WriteLine (bits[1]);   // False

HashSet and SortedSet

{
  var letters = new HashSet<char> ("the quick brown fox");

  Console.WriteLine (letters.Contains ('t'));      // true
  Console.WriteLine (letters.Contains ('j'));      // false

  foreach (char c in letters) Console.Write (c);   // the quickbrownfx
}
Console.WriteLine();
{
  var letters = new SortedSet<char> ("the quick brown fox");

  foreach (char c in letters) 
    Console.Write (c);                                    //  bcefhiknoqrtuwx
    
  Console.WriteLine();

  foreach (char c in letters.GetViewBetween ('f', 'i'))
    Console.Write (c);                                    //  fhi
}

HashSet and SortedSet - set operators

{
  var letters = new HashSet<char> ("the quick brown fox");
  letters.IntersectWith ("aeiou");
  foreach (char c in letters) Console.Write (c);     // euio
}
Console.WriteLine();
{
  var letters = new HashSet<char> ("the quick brown fox");
  letters.ExceptWith ("aeiou");
  foreach (char c in letters) Console.Write (c);     // th qckbrwnfx
}
Console.WriteLine();
{
  var letters = new HashSet<char> ("the quick brown fox");
  letters.SymmetricExceptWith ("the lazy brown fox");
  foreach (char c in letters) Console.Write (c);     // quicklazy
}
Dictionaries

Dictionary

var d = new Dictionary<string, int>();

d.Add("One", 1);
d["Two"] = 2;     // adds to dictionary because "two" not already present
d["Two"] = 22;    // updates dictionary because "two" is now present
d["Three"] = 3;

Console.WriteLine (d["Two"]);                // Prints "22"
Console.WriteLine (d.ContainsKey ("One"));   // true (fast operation)
Console.WriteLine (d.ContainsValue (3));     // true (slow operation)
int val = 0;
if (!d.TryGetValue ("onE", out val))
  Console.WriteLine ("No val");            // "No val" (case sensitive)

// Three different ways to enumerate the dictionary:

foreach (KeyValuePair<string, int> kv in d)          //  One; 1
  Console.WriteLine (kv.Key + "; " + kv.Value);    //  Two; 22
                                                     //  Three; 3

foreach (string s in d.Keys) Console.Write (s);      // OneTwoThree
Console.WriteLine();
foreach (int i in d.Values) Console.Write (i);       // 1223

var dIgnoreCase = new Dictionary<string, bool> (StringComparer.OrdinalIgnoreCase);
dIgnoreCase["foo"] = true;
dIgnoreCase["FOO"].Dump();

SortedDictionary and SortedList

// MethodInfo is in the System.Reflection namespace

var sorted = new SortedList <string, MethodInfo>();

foreach (MethodInfo m in typeof (object).GetMethods())
  sorted [m.Name] = m;

sorted.Keys.Dump ("keys");
sorted.Values.Dump ("values");

foreach (MethodInfo m in sorted.Values)
  Console.WriteLine (m.Name + " returns a " + m.ReturnType);

Console.WriteLine (sorted ["GetHashCode"]);      // Int32 GetHashCode()

Console.WriteLine (sorted.Keys  [sorted.Count - 1]);            // ToString
Console.WriteLine (sorted.Values[sorted.Count - 1].IsVirtual);  // True
Customizable Collections and Proxies

Using System.Collections.ObjectModel.Collection

public class Animal
{
  public string Name;
  public int Popularity;

  public Animal (string name, int popularity)
  {
    Name = name; Popularity = popularity;
  }
}

public class AnimalCollection : Collection <Animal>
{
  // AnimalCollection is already a fully functioning list of animals.
  // No extra code is required.
}

public class Zoo   // The class that will expose AnimalCollection.
{                  // This would typically have additional members.

  public readonly AnimalCollection Animals = new AnimalCollection();
}

static void Main()
{
  Zoo zoo = new Zoo();
  zoo.Animals.Add (new Animal ("Kangaroo", 10));
  zoo.Animals.Add (new Animal ("Mr Sea Lion", 20));
  foreach (Animal a in zoo.Animals) Console.WriteLine (a.Name);
}

Extending previous example

public class Animal
{
  public string Name;
  public int Popularity;
  
  public Zoo Zoo { get; internal set; }

  public Animal (string name, int popularity)
  {
    Name = name; Popularity = popularity;
  }
}

public class AnimalCollection : Collection <Animal>
{
  Zoo zoo;
  public AnimalCollection (Zoo zoo) { this.zoo = zoo; }

  protected override void InsertItem (int index, Animal item)
  {
    base.InsertItem (index, item);
    item.Zoo = zoo;
  }
  protected override void SetItem (int index, Animal item)
  {
    base.SetItem (index, item);
    item.Zoo = zoo;
  }
  protected override void RemoveItem (int index)
  {
    this [index].Zoo = null;
    base.RemoveItem (index);
  }
  protected override void ClearItems()
  {
    foreach (Animal a in this) a.Zoo = null;
    base.ClearItems();
  }
}

public class Zoo
{
  public readonly AnimalCollection Animals;
  public Zoo() { Animals = new AnimalCollection (this); }
}

static void Main()
{
  Zoo zoo = new Zoo();
  zoo.Animals.Add (new Animal ("Kangaroo", 10));
  zoo.Animals.Add (new Animal ("Mr Sea Lion", 20));
  foreach (Animal a in zoo.Animals) Console.WriteLine (a.Name);
}

KeyedCollection

public class Animal
{
  string name;
  public string Name
  {
    get { return name; }
    set {
      if (Zoo != null) Zoo.Animals.NotifyNameChange (this, value);
      name = value;
    }
  }
  public int Popularity;
  public Zoo Zoo { get; internal set; }

  public Animal (string name, int popularity)
  {
    Name = name; Popularity = popularity;
  }
}

public class AnimalCollection : KeyedCollection <string, Animal>
{
  Zoo zoo;
  public AnimalCollection (Zoo zoo) { this.zoo = zoo; }

  internal void NotifyNameChange (Animal a, string newName)
  {
    this.ChangeItemKey (a, newName);
  }

  protected override string GetKeyForItem (Animal item)
  {
    return item.Name;
  }

  protected override void InsertItem (int index, Animal item)
  {
    base.InsertItem (index, item);
    item.Zoo = zoo;
  }
  protected override void SetItem (int index, Animal item)
  {
    base.SetItem (index, item);
    item.Zoo = zoo;
  }
  protected override void RemoveItem (int index)
  {
    this [index].Zoo = null;
    base.RemoveItem (index);
  }
  protected override void ClearItems()
  {
    foreach (Animal a in this) a.Zoo = null;
    base.ClearItems();
  }
}

public class Zoo
{
  public readonly AnimalCollection Animals;
  public Zoo() { Animals = new AnimalCollection (this); }
}

static void Main()
{
  Zoo zoo = new Zoo();
  zoo.Animals.Add (new Animal ("Kangaroo", 10));
  zoo.Animals.Add (new Animal ("Mr Sea Lion", 20));
  Console.WriteLine (zoo.Animals [0].Popularity);               // 10
  Console.WriteLine (zoo.Animals ["Mr Sea Lion"].Popularity);   // 20
  zoo.Animals ["Kangaroo"].Name = "Mr Roo";
  Console.WriteLine (zoo.Animals ["Mr Roo"].Popularity);        // 10
}

ReadOnlyCollection

public class Test
{
  List<string> names;
  public ReadOnlyCollection<string> Names { get; private set; }

  public Test()
  {
    names = new List<string>();
    Names = new ReadOnlyCollection<string> (names);
  }

  public void AddInternally() { names.Add ("test"); }
}

void Main()
{
  Test t = new Test();

  Console.WriteLine (t.Names.Count);       // 0
  t.AddInternally();
  Console.WriteLine (t.Names.Count);       // 1
  
  t.Names.Add ("test");                    // Compiler error
  ((IList<string>) t.Names).Add ("test");  // NotSupportedException
}
Immutable Collections

Creating immutable collections

ImmutableArray<int> array = ImmutableArray.Create<int> (1, 2, 3);

var list = new[] { 1, 2, 3 }.ToImmutableList();

array.Dump();
list.Dump();

Manipulating immutable collections

var oldList = ImmutableList.Create<int> (1, 2, 3);

ImmutableList<int> newList = oldList.Add (4);

Console.WriteLine (oldList.Count);     // 3  (unaltered)
Console.WriteLine (newList.Count);     // 4

var anotherList = oldList.AddRange (new[] { 4, 5, 6 });
anotherList.Dump();

Builders

ImmutableArray<int>.Builder builder = ImmutableArray.CreateBuilder<int>();
builder.Add(1);
builder.Add(2);
builder.Add(3);
builder.RemoveAt(0);
ImmutableArray<int> myImmutable = builder.ToImmutable();

myImmutable.Dump();

var builder2 = myImmutable.ToBuilder();
builder2.Add (4);      // Efficient
builder2.Remove (2);   // Efficient
// ...                  // More changes to builder...
// Return a new immutable collection with all the changes applied:
ImmutableArray<int> myImmutable2 = builder2.ToImmutable().Dump();
Plugging in Equality and Order

IEqualityComparer and EqualityComparer

public class Customer
{
  public string LastName;
  public string FirstName;

  public Customer (string last, string first)
  {
    LastName = last;
    FirstName = first;
  }
}
public class LastFirstEqComparer : EqualityComparer <Customer>
{
  public override bool Equals (Customer x, Customer y)
    => x.LastName == y.LastName && x.FirstName == y.FirstName;

  public override int GetHashCode (Customer obj)
    => (obj.LastName + ";" + obj.FirstName).GetHashCode();
}

void Main()
{
  Customer c1 = new Customer ("Bloggs", "Joe");
  Customer c2 = new Customer ("Bloggs", "Joe");
  
  Console.WriteLine (c1 == c2);               // False
  Console.WriteLine (c1.Equals (c2));         // False
  
  var d = new Dictionary<Customer, string>();
  d [c1] = "Joe";
  Console.WriteLine (d.ContainsKey (c2));         // False

  var eqComparer = new LastFirstEqComparer();
  d = new Dictionary<Customer, string> (eqComparer);
  d [c1] = "Joe";
  Console.WriteLine (d.ContainsKey (c2));         // True
}

IComparer and Comparer

class Wish
{
  public string Name;
  public int Priority;

  public Wish (string name, int priority)
  {
    Name = name;
    Priority = priority;
  }
}

class PriorityComparer : Comparer <Wish>
{
  public override int Compare (Wish x, Wish y)
  {
    if (object.Equals (x, y)) return 0;          // Fail-safe check
    return x.Priority.CompareTo (y.Priority);
  }
}

void Main()
{
  var wishList = new List<Wish>();
  wishList.Add (new Wish ("Peace", 2));
  wishList.Add (new Wish ("Wealth", 3));
  wishList.Add (new Wish ("Love", 2));
  wishList.Add (new Wish ("3 more wishes", 1));
  
  wishList.Sort (new PriorityComparer());
  wishList.Dump();
}

IComparer and Comparer - SurnameComparer

class SurnameComparer : Comparer <string>
{
  string Normalize (string s)
  {
    s = s.Trim().ToUpper();
    if (s.StartsWith ("MC")) s = "MAC" + s.Substring (2);
    return s;
  }

  public override int Compare (string x, string y)
    => Normalize (x).CompareTo (Normalize (y));
}

void Main()
{
  var dic = new SortedDictionary<string,string> (new SurnameComparer());
  dic.Add ("MacPhail", "second!");
  dic.Add ("MacWilliam", "third!");
  dic.Add ("McDonald", "first!");
  dic.Dump();
}

StringComparer

var dict = new Dictionary<string, int> (StringComparer.OrdinalIgnoreCase);
dict["joe"] = 12345;
dict["JOE"].Dump();

string[] names = { "Tom", "HARRY", "sheila" };
CultureInfo ci = new CultureInfo ("en-AU");
Array.Sort<string> (names, StringComparer.Create (ci, false));
names.Dump();

Culture-aware SurnameComarer

class SurnameComparer : Comparer <string>
{
  StringComparer strCmp;

  public SurnameComparer (CultureInfo ci)
  {
    // Create a case-sensitive, culture-sensitive string comparer
    strCmp = StringComparer.Create (ci, false);
  }

  string Normalize (string s)
  {
    s = s.Trim();
    if (s.ToUpper().StartsWith ("MC")) s = "MAC" + s.Substring (2);
    return s;
  }

  public override int Compare (string x, string y)
  {
    // Directly call Compare on our culture-aware StringComparer
    return strCmp.Compare (Normalize (x), Normalize (y));
  }
}

void Main()
{
  var dic = new SortedDictionary<string,string> (new SurnameComparer(CultureInfo.GetCultureInfo ("de-DE")));
  dic.Add ("MacPhail", "second!");
  dic.Add ("MacWilliam", "third!");
  dic.Add ("McDonald", "first!");
  dic.Dump();
}

IStructuralEquatable and IStructuralComparable

{
  int[] a1 = { 1, 2, 3 };
  int[] a2 = { 1, 2, 3 };
  IStructuralEquatable se1 = a1;
  Console.WriteLine (a1.Equals (a2));                                  // False
  Console.WriteLine (se1.Equals (a2, EqualityComparer<int>.Default));  // True
}
{
  string[] a1 = "the quick brown fox".Split();
  string[] a2 = "THE QUICK BROWN FOX".Split();
  IStructuralEquatable se1 = a1;
  bool isTrue = se1.Equals (a2, StringComparer.InvariantCultureIgnoreCase);
}
{
  var t1 = Tuple.Create (1, "foo");
  var t2 = Tuple.Create (1, "FOO");
  IStructuralEquatable se1 = t1;
  Console.WriteLine (se1.Equals (t2, StringComparer.InvariantCultureIgnoreCase));     // True
  IStructuralComparable sc1 = t1;
  Console.WriteLine (sc1.CompareTo (t2, StringComparer.InvariantCultureIgnoreCase));  // 0
}
{
  var t1 = Tuple.Create (1, "FOO");
  var t2 = Tuple.Create (1, "FOO");
  Console.WriteLine (t1.Equals (t2));   // True
}